Although this research focussed on London the findings are highly relevant nationwide. It must be noted that, as Claire points out, there has been a marked deterioration in outcomes since 2016, the year of this data.

Between 2014 and 2018 the number of rapes reported has increased by 173% whilst the number of prosecutions has fallen off a cliff – down by 44%. The conviction rate in 2016 was a mere 1.7% but now the prosecution rate is less than that, at only 1.5% as the Guardian reported on Saturday

We all owe Claire Waxman and the University of West London a debt in producing such a comprehensive work. I endorse her recommendations in particular that trauma-informed training for all justice personnel is imperative, that complainants must be treated with dignity, given specialist support and, where necessary, legal advice on issues such as disclosure of personal data. Police and criminal justice agencies must ensure that complainants are kept informed about case progress and use bail to give protection whilst minimising the current long delays between report and trial.

This is a comprehensive piece of work and I shall be asking my former colleague Police and Crime Commissioners to partner with a local university and produce similar reports throughout England and Wales